The instabilities in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America have triggered an unprecedented migratory flow throughout the world. Recent national and international border management measures are affecting migration patterns and posing different challenges to the health systems response to large influxes of refugees and migrants to both the United States and European Union Member States. Countries have had to respond to massive influxes of transiting migrants in the last years, and all are faced with populations staying in the country for longer periods. International adoptions have also contributed to the permanent relocation of significant numbers of children from a variety of countries especially to the United States. Refugees and migrants are a heterogeneous group and health care systems must be prepared to respond to their diverse needs.
The first background paper explaining current migration statistics to the European Union is an analysis from the BBC World Service. The second paper by Darr and Conn reviews the importation and transmission of infectious diseases resulting from human movement and migration. The third and fourth papers attempt to assess the spectrum of imported diseases likely to accompany migrants. A background paper is also included which discusses the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases.
· Distinguish between the terms emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.
· What types of endemic diseases might come from the areas of the world contributing to the current migration patterns? Be sure to name both the specific areas and describe the diseases.
· What types of public health interventions might such groups need in order to address the issues of emerging and re-emerging disease?